Cribado del cáncer colorrectal

digestivo
El cáncer de colon y de recto (colorrectal) es una enfermedad de gran impacto en la actualidad. Hoy día existen programas específicos de cribado dirigidos a la detección temprana del cáncer colorrectal. En este artículo le explicaremos algunos conceptos importantes que debe conocer.
 
¿Qué es eso del cribado?
Los términos “cribado”, “screening” y “diagnóstico precoz” hacen referencia a programas de prevención encaminados a detectar enfermedades potencialmente graves en sus fases iniciales. De forma general, estos programas se aplican a todas aquellas personas que se consideran con más riesgo de desarrollar la enfermedad.
Su objetivo no es evitar la enfermedad, sino detectarla lo más pronto posible.
 
¿Por qué es importante el cribado de cáncer colorrectal?
Actualmente existen múltiples alternativas para el tratamiento del cáncer colorrectal. Sin embargo, el pronóstico de la enfermedad varía enormemente según la fase en la que se encuentre. Realizar un diagnóstico lo más temprano posible es clave para buscar la curación en este tipo de cáncer.
 
¿Debo hablar con mi médico sobre este tema?
Sí. Si usted ya ha cumplido los 50 años debería participar en los programas de cribado poblacional de cáncer colorrectal.
Si en su familia hay antecedentes de cáncer colorrectal debería hablar con su médico de cabecera sobre este tema, no importa cuál sea su edad. Él le indicará qué pasos debe seguir para realizarse pruebas de diagnóstico precoz.
 
¿Cómo se realiza el cribado de cáncer colorrectal?
Se realiza a pacientes que tengan 50 años o más, a los que se supone sanos y que no tengan antecedentes personales ni familiares de cáncer colorrectal.
Hay varios métodos que actualmente se consideran válidos para este cribado: una prueba de sangre oculta en heces cada 1-2 años y/o una sigmoidoscopia cada 5 años, o una colonoscopia cada 10 años.

  • Sangre oculta en heces (SOH): busca mínimas cantidades de sangre en las heces mediante el análisis de una muestra. Es indoloro, muy sencillo de realizar y no necesita ninguna preparación previa.
  • Sigmoidoscopia y colonoscopia: permiten visualizar una parte del colon (sigmoidoscopia) o su totalidad (colonoscopia) mediante la introducción por vía rectal de un endoscopio. Si existe alguna lesión de pequeño tamaño se puede extirpar durante la exploración. Se realiza con sedación para evitar molestias.

 
¿Cómo funciona el Programa de Detección Precoz de Cáncer Colorrectal de la Junta de Castilla y León?
Si usted tiene entre 50 años y 69 años se le ofertará participar en el programa de detección precoz. A usted le llegará una carta invitándole a acudir a su Centro de Salud para recoger el material necesario para realizar, de forma gratuita, una prueba de sangre oculta en heces.
Esta prueba es indolora y solamente necesita tomar una muestra de heces con el dispositivo que se le dará en su Centro de Salud. No es necesaria ninguna dieta especial durante los días previos, ya que este test es muy específico para detectar sangre humana y no se altera por otros componentes que puedan estar presentes en las heces.
Si el resultado de la prueba es negativo debe continuar con estas pruebas cada dos años hasta que cumpla 69 años, cuando abandonará el programa.
 
Si usted vive en otra Comunidad Autónoma, consulte con su médico de cabecera acerca de los programas de detección precoz disponibles en su lugar de residencia.
 
Tengo más de 50 años pero no me ha llegado la carta del Programa de Detección Precoz de la Junta de Castilla y León
El Programa se ha iniciado progresivamente, comenzando por los pacientes de mayor edad. No obstante, si usted cumple los criterios arriba mencionados puede realizarse pruebas de cribado aunque no haya recibido la carta. Consulte con su médico de cabecera, quien le indicará los pasos a seguir.
 
¿Qué ocurre si la prueba de sangre oculta es positiva?
Un resultado positivo no es sinónimo de cáncer. Existen otras patologías intestinales que pueden producir sangrado. Si su prueba es positiva se le indicará que debe realizarse una colonoscopia para buscar la causa del sangrado.
 
¿Qué sucede si en mi familia hay antecedentes de cáncer de colon?
Las personas con antecedentes familiares de cáncer colorrectal pueden tener un mayor riesgo de padecer la enfermedad que la población general. Por eso, los controles no son exactamente los mismos y tendrá que consultar a su médico sobre el modo en que debe hacerse la detección precoz de cáncer colorrectal.
Existen unos criterios para determinar el método y la periodicidad de las pruebas de detección precoz. Se los exponemos de forma resumida en el este enlace. No obstante, si tiene familiares afectados por cáncer de colon, consulte con su médico.
Bibliografía:

Revisado: marzo 2016

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