PICC: Catéter Central de Inserción Periférica.


En este post vamos a hablar sobre los PICCS, catéteres centrales de inserción periférica. Si quieres información sobre este tema, siga leyendo.

¿Qué es el PICC? 
Se trata de un catéter delgado y flexible. Pueden ser de distintos materiales y tener varias salidas. Suelen colocarse en las venas del brazo, hasta llegar a la vena cava superior. Se fija a la piel mediante un apósito especial.
¿Cuándo está indicado colocar un PICC?
Este catéter está indicado en pacientes que necesitan tratamiento frecuente, agresivo con las venas, quimioterapia, nutrición intravenosa, administración de sangre o derivados, entre otras. Puede permanecer en su lugar durante semanas o meses, y ayuda a evitar los pinchazos repetidos. También se usa para tomar muestras de sangre, se pueden usar con bombas de inyección y se puede inyectar isótopos radiactivos a través de él.
Se colocará un PICC siempre que sea de elección médico-paciente, y no haya contraindicaciones.
¿Qué ventajas tiene el PICC?
Estos dispositivos están siendo muy utilizados en la actualidad debido a sus ventajas:
– Al ser colocado en el brazo, disminuye las complicaciones de los catéteres colocados en el tórax o zona yugular.
– Evita los pinchazos.
– Comodidad para el paciente.
– Valido para cualquier tratamiento intravenoso.
– Evita el daño de las venas.
– Colocación más fácil y económica que otros catéteres o reservorios.
¿La colocación del PICC tiene alguna contraindicación?
Sí, como cualquier técnica tiene contraindicaciones.Si no se puede visualizar la vena, existe deterioro circulatorio, cirugías o traumas previos como derrame cerebral, o en personas con antecedentes de uso de estupefacientes, no estaría indicado el PICC.
Tampoco se colocaría este tipo de catéter si el paciente padece neuropatía periférica, ha tenido trombosis, o son portadores de otro catéter central o marcapasos.
¿Qué complicaciones tiene el PICC?
Las complicaciones son infrecuentes, pero dentro de ellas, entre las que se pueden
dar, tendríamos: los tromboembolismos, las infecciones, taponamientos del catéter, y los
sangrados.
¿Cómo se coloca el PICC?
El PICC lo coloca un médico o un enfermero entrenado. Se coloca con técnica estéril con ayuda de un ecógrafo. Se utiliza anestesia local, para evitar las molestias. Antes de la utilización, se realiza una radiografía para comprobar que esté bien colocado.
Guía para el paciente portador de PICC:
– Evitar cargar pesos con ese brazo.
– No realizar movimientos bruscos como natación o gimnasia, para evitar desplazamientos.
– Ducha diaria protegiendo la zona.
– Los cambios del apósito y el mantenimiento se realizarán semanalmente, o antes si fuera necesario.
– Nunca tirar del catéter.
– No realizar tareas en lugares sucios.
– Si convive con mascotas, proteger la zona para evitar arañazos y/o mordeduras.



Ester Aparicio Posada
Enfermera Residente enfermería familiar y comunitaria
C.S. Circunvalación Valladolid Este.

REFERENCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS:

  • Ana Mª A.N, Esther F.F, Ángeles G.F, Eulalia G.G, Teresa V.G, Ana Mª L.L, Sagrario P.F, Carmen
    V.F. Catéteres venosos centrales guía para enfermería [Monografía en internet]*. Principado
    de Asturias: SESPA: 2011 Disponible en: http://www.asturias.es
  • Oliva Cesar A, Muriana Jiménez R, González Caro JM, Rodríguez Flores R. Cuidados de
    enfermería en el cateterismo venoso central de acceso periférico con catéter de doble luz o
    multilumen mediante técnica de Seldinger. 2007 jul-ago; 4(29).
    Brenner F. P, Bugedo T. G, Calleja R. D, Del Valle M. G, Fica C. A, Gómez O. ME, et al.
    Prevención de infecciones asociadas a catéteres vasculares centrales. REVINF. 2003;20(1):51-
    69.

Revisado: Diciembre 2019.

422 comentarios en “PICC: Catéter Central de Inserción Periférica.”

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